ESCI 411 - Advanced Petrology 2

Cin-Ty Lee, 2019

 25% Participation - readings, presentations

 25% Field trip presentation

 50% Term paper

 Required text: Sylvester, A. G., E. O. Gans, 2016, Roadside Geology of Southern California, Mountain Press.

Week 1. Mantle Melting

Lecture: Mantle Melting I

Lecture: Trace element modeling - Lee lecture notes

Real time lecture notes 1

Langmuir, C., Klein, E.M., Plank, T., 1992. Petrological systematics of mid-ocean ridge basalts: constraints on melt generation beneath ocean ridges, Geophys. Monograph. American Geophysical Union, pp. 183-280.

Asimow, P.D., Langmuir, C.H., 2003. The importance of water to oceanic mantle melting regimes. Nature 421, 815-820.

Stolper, E.M., Asimow, P.D., 2007. Insights into mantle melting from graphical analysis of one-component systems. Am. J. Sci. 307, 1051-1139.

Week 2. Mantle Geochemistry

Hofmann, A.W., 1988. Chemical differentiation of the Earth: the relationship between mantle, continental crust, and oceanic crust. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 90, 297-314.

Hofmann, A.W., 1997. Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism. Nature 385, 219-229.

McDonough, W.F., Sun, S.-S., 1995. The composition of the Earth. Chem. Geol. 120, 223-253.

Hanson, G.N., Langmuir, C., 1978. Modelling of major elements in mantle-melt systems using trace element approaches. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42, 725-741.

Week 3. Mantle potential temperature

Langmuir, C.H., Hanson, G.N., 1981. Calculating mineral-melt equilibria with stoichiometry, mass balance, and single component distribution coefficients, in: Newton, R.C., Navrotsky, A., Wood, B.J. (Eds.), Thermodynamics of minerals and melts. Springer, New York, pp. 247-271.

Putirka, K.D., 2005. Mantle potential temperatures at Hawaii, Iceland, and the mid-ocean ridge system, as inferred from olivine phenocrysts: evidence for thermally driven mantle plumes. Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 6, doi:10.1029/2005GC000915.

Lee, C.-T.A., Luffi, P., Plank, T., Dalton, H.A., Leeman, W.P., 2009. Constraints on the depths and temperatures of basaltic magma generation on Earth and other terrestrial planets using new thermobarometers for mafic magmas. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 279, 20-33.

Herzberg, C., Asimow, P.D., 2008. Petrology of some oceanic island basalts: PRIMELT2.XLS software for primary magma calculation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 9.

Week 4. Mantle melting: peridotite + pyroxenite

Walter, M.J., 1998. Melting of garnet peridotite and the origin of komatiite and depleted lithosphere. J. Petrol. 39, 29-60.

Pertermann, M., Hirschmann, M.M., 2003. Anhydrous partial melting experiments on MORB-like eclogite: phase relations, phase compositions and mineral-melt partitioning of major elements at 2-3 GPa. J. Petrol. 44, 2173-2201.

Leeman, W.P., Harry, D.L., 1993. A binary source model for extension-related magmatism in the Great Basin, western North America. Science 262, 1550-1554.

Dasgupta, R., Hirschmann, M.M., 2006. Melting in the Earth's deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide. Nature 440, 659-662.

Week 5. Continenal lithospheric mantle

Lee, C.-T.A., Luffi, P., Chin, E.J., 2011. Building and destroying continental mantle. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 39, 59-90.

Jordan, T.H., 1978. Composition and development of the continental tectosphere. Nature 274, 544-548.

Pearson, D.G., Wittig, N., 2008. Formation of Archaean continental lithosphere and its diamonds: the root of the problem. J. Geol. Soc. London 165, 895-914.

Frey, F.A., Prinz, M., 1978. Ultramafic inclusions from San Carlos, Arizona: petrologic and geochemical data bearing on their petrogenesis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 38, 129-176.


Zimmer, M.M., Plank, T., Hauri, E.H., Yogodzinski, G.M., Stelling, P., Larsen, J., Singer, B., Jicha, B., Mandeville, C., Nye, C.J., 2006. The Role of Water in Generating the Calc-alkaline Trend: New Volatile Data for Aleutian Magmas and a New Tholeiitic Index. J. Petrology 51, 2411-2444.

Sisson, T.W., Grove, T.L., 1993. Experimental investigations of the role of H2O in calc-alkaline differentiation and subduction zone magmatism. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 113, 143-166.

Grove, T.L., Elkins-Tanton, L.T., Parman, S.W., Chatterjee, N., Müntener, O., Gaetani, G.A., 2003. Fractional crystallization and mantle-melting controls on calc-alkaline differentiation trends. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 145, 515-533.

Tang, M., Erdman, M.E., Eldridge, G., Lee, C.-T.A., 2018. The "redox filter” beneath magmatic orogens and the formation of continental crust. Science Advances 4, eaar4444.

Farner, M.J., Lee, C.-T.A., 2017. Effects of crustal thickness on magmatic differentiation in subduction zone volcanism: a global study. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 470, 96-107.

Kuno, H., 1966. Lateral variation of basalt magma type across continental margins and island arcs. Bulletin Volcanologique 29, 195-222.

Osborn, E.F., 1959. Role of oxygen partial pressure in the crystallization and differentiation of basaltic magma. Am. J. Sci. 257, 609-647.

Week 7. Silicic magmatism

Chappell, B.W., White, A.J.R., Brown, P.E., 1992. I- and S-type granites in the Lachlan fold belt. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Science 83, 1-26.

Vielzeuf, D., Schmidt, M.W., 2001. Melting relations in hydrous systems revisited: application to metapelites, metagreywackes and metabasalts. Contributions to Mineral Petrology 141, 251-267.

Bachmann, O., Huber, C., 2016. Silicic magma reservoirs in the Earth's crust. American Mineralogist 101, 2377-2404.

Hildreth, W., Wilson, C.J.N., 2007. Compositional zoning of the Bishop Tuff. Journal of Petrology 48, 951-999.

Week 8. Subduction zone

Plank, T., Langmuir, C.H., 1988. An evaluation of the global variations in the major element chemistry of arc basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 90, 349-370.

Plank, T., 2005. Constraints from thorium/lanthanum on sediment recycling at subduction zones and the evolution of continents. J. Petrol. 46, 921-944.

Turner, S.J., Langmuir, C.H., 2015. What processes control the chemical compositions of arc front stratovolcanoes? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16, 1865-1893.

England, P., Katz, R.F., 2010. Melting above the anhydrous solidus controls the location of volcanic arcs. Nature 467, 700-704.

Week 9. Pegmatites and ores

London, D., 1984. Experimental phase equilibria in the system LiAlSiO2-SiO2-H2O: a petrogenetic grid for lithium-rich pegmatites. American Mineralogist 69, 995-1004.

Jahns, R.H., Burnham, C.W., 1969. Experimental studies of pegmatite genesis: I. A model for the derivation and crystallization of granitic pegmatites. Economic Geology 64, 843-864.

London, D., 1992. The application of experimental petrology to the genesis and crystallization of granitic pegmatites. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 499-540.

Week 10. Continental crust formation

Rudnick, R.L., Gao, S., 2003. Composition of the continental crust. Treatise of Geochemistry 3, 1-64.

Tang, M., Erdman, M.E., Eldridge, G., Lee, C.-T.A., 2018. The "redox filter” beneath magmatic orogens and the formation of continental crust. Science Advances 4, eaar4444.

Lee, C.-T.A., Morton, D.M., Kistler, R.W., Baird, A.K., 2007. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: from island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 263, 370-387.

Hildreth, W., Moorbath, S., 1988. Crustal contributions to arc magmatism in the Andes of central Chile. Contributions to Mineral Petrology 98, 455-489.

Jagoutz, O., Kelemen, P., 2015. Role of arc processes in the formation of continental crust. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 43, 363-404.

Week 11. Magma emplacement mechanisms

Rubin, A.M., 1995. Propagation of magma-filled cracks. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 23, 287-336.

Jaupart, C., Mareschal, J.-C., Roman, A., 2018. The formation of continental crust from a physics perspective. Geochemistry International 56, 1289-1321.

Week 12. Magma dynamics

Gonnermann, H.M., Manga, M., 2007. The fluid mechanics inside a volcano. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 39, 321-356.

Gonnermann, H.M., Manga, M., 2012. Dynamics of magma ascent in the volcanic conduit, in: Fagents, S.A., Gregg, T.K.P., Lopes, R.M.C. (Eds.), Modeling volcanic processes: the physics and mathematics of volcanism. Cambridge University Press.

Jaupart, C., Tait, S., 1995. Dynamics of differnetiation in magma reservoirs. J. Geophysical Research 100, 17615-17636.

Week 13. Accessory minerals

Harrison, T.M., Watson, E.B., 1984. The behavior of apatite during crustal anatexis: equilibrium and kinetic considerations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 1467-1477.

Lee, C.-T.A., Luffi, P., Chin, E.J., Bouchet, R., Dasgupta, R., Morton, D.M., Le Roux, V., Yin, Q.-Z., Jin, D., 2012. Copper systematics in arc magmas and implications for crust-mantle differentiation. Science 336, 64-68.

Miller, C.F., Watson, E.B., Harrison, T.M., 1988. Perspectives on the source, segregation and transport of granitoid magmas. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh, Earth Sci. 79, 135-156.

Plank, T., Cooper, L.B., Manning, C.E., 2009. Emerging geothermometers for estimating slab surface temperatures. Nature Geoscience 2, 611-615.

Week 14. Ancient continental crust

Sandiford, M., van Kranendonk, M.J., Bodorkos, S., 2004. Conductive incubation and the origin of dome-and-keel structure in Archean granite-greenstone terrains: a model based on the eastern Pilbara. Tectonics 23.

Bedard, J.H., 2006. A catalytic delamination-driven model for coupled genesis of Archaean crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 1188-1214.

Janardhan, A.S., Newston, R.C., Smith, J.V., 1979. Ancient crustal metamorphism at low pH2O: charnockite formation at Kabbaldurga, south India. Nature 278, 511-514.

Additional lecture material

Mantle Melting I

Melting and trace elements

Differentiation of Earth with simple phase diagrams

Trace element Modeling

Magma chamber box modeling

Crash course in radiogenic isotopes

Thermobarometry notes